HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2020 19:34:02 GMT 女上男下吸动

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

[d?eil]

Show MoreHide

14. 另一方面。下面是一份今年大制片公司发行,由女导演执导的粗略名单:华纳兄弟五部!包括拉娜·沃卓斯基(Lana Wachowski)、安妮·弗莱彻(Anne Fletcher)、黛娜·纳彻曼(Dana Nachman)、南希·迈耶斯(Nancy Meyers)和派翠西亚·莱根(Patricia Riggen)。环球影业三部,包括萨姆·泰勒·约翰逊(Sam Taylor Johnson)、伊丽莎白·班克斯(Elizabeth Banks)和安吉丽娜·朱莉(Angelina Jolie);迪斯尼一部,尼基·卡罗(Niki Caro)。派拉蒙零部。福克斯零部。索尼零部。我没有把福克斯和索尼的独立部门包括进去。
当野生动物违禁走私商品在美国被查获时,它们会被送往丹佛附近的国家野生动物资源库。特里斯坦?斯宾斯基在这间资料库内拍到了以下物品的照片:用豹子的皮制成的鞋,用斑马蹄制成的灯,海龟头骨,大象脚凳——“人类对其他物种欲望的物证,”瑞秋?努尔在7月的报道中写道。
iPhone 8

Housing started last year on a high note. It ended the year facing mounting worries about higher interest rates, supply constraints, tight credit and a host of other problems.
第二场比赛将于10月8日在上海的梅赛德斯-奔驰文化中心举行。
She told The Telegraph: 'I don't feel that normal any more because I get recognised, even when I'm just trying to have fun or going to get ice cream with my friends.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

个税改革迈出关键一步 人民日报五问个人所得税法修改

根据这份由艾瑞咨询集团与新浪微博联合发布的报告表示,由新浪微博和电信巨头华为联合主办的2016超级红人节高峰论坛在上海举行。
fMyMcOap+fQw~Mwi)uNa
However, this year it is ranked in eighth place.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

在线课程的部分吸引力在于灵活性、覆盖范围以及授课进度比住读MBA慢。除了IE商学院(规定学习时间最长为18个月),学员平均可以用5年左右的时间来完成学位课程。
"Protections that promote equality and diversity should not be conditional on someone's sexual orientation," he wrote. "For too long, too many people have had to hide that part of their identity in the workplace."
全球收入最高的女星排行榜4-10位:

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 单词institute 联想记忆:
  • 国务院:盘活农村存量建设用地
  • 梅根·马克尔
  • 5月份北京二手房成交量14个月最高 未来新房房源将大增
  • 家具行业产能过剩 协会正考虑建立创新体制
  • 8. Experienced Better Cognitive Performance With Bare Feet
    States are falling all over themselves to be chosen as the site for Tesla’s proposed $5 billion Gigafactoryto produce lithium ion batteries. California is competing with Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and the bidding for the factory, which could employ up to 6,500 people, is said to be up to $500 million.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 上半年全国楼市仍在“去库存” 投资增速继续下降, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

绿建行动方案加速结构与保温装饰一体化行业发展

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

《2017年中山市房屋租金参考价》:东区住宅写字楼租金最高

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 弗兰西斯麦克多蒙德在这个黑色喜剧故事中扮演一位悲伤的母亲,展现了出色的核心表演。
    马来西亚怡保——怡保位于吉隆坡北部约200公里处,从前是英国的殖民地,如今却是美食家的天堂,那里既有当地路边小吃,也有精致的咖啡馆。
  • 大多数企业家(78%)利用储蓄或依赖朋友和家人来筹集全部或部分启动资金。四分之三的企业家也使用天使融资来作为资金来源。
    当你听说今年3月份,一个17岁的学生把自己设计的一款软件以3,000万美元卖给雅虎公司(Yahoo! Inc., YHOO)的时候。对于这孩子的形貌,你脑海里或许已勾画出一个搞笑的形象了吧:不用说,肯定是个极客。一个除了一行一行写代码之外对什么也不感兴趣的学霸。一个不敢正眼瞧人还老小声儿嘀咕着什么的神经质。
    周一晚间,安卡拉方面证实,不欢迎荷兰驻土耳其大使返回土耳其。
    2017年,全球黄金的产量从上一年的3263吨上升至3268.7吨。这是自2008年以来的最小涨幅。2008年金融危机期间,黄金开采量下降了逾2%。
    汉口滨江的居民数周前就已将财产转移。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 广州二手房中介费 仍为楼价的1%~2%
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 线上线下“巧”融合 成木门行业新突破

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

A. O. Scott
Comic skit “Big City Small Life”(Wang Ning, Chang Yuan and Ailun)
卓越雇主排名:7
单词continuous 联想记忆:
Stevens会演唱电影《以你的名字呼唤我》中《Mystery of Love》,以及Bernal, LaFourcade和 Miguel会合唱《寻梦环游记》中的歌曲《Remember Me》。
release
纽约现在排名第7,比去年上升了15个名次。近年来,纽约的生活成本涨幅巨大,较2011年上升了42个名次。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • vt. 起草,征
  • 1-8月我国家具出口金额增长 品牌环保家具获认可
  • Sweden, one of the most generous countries in terms of contributing funds to humanitarian aid, ranks No. 6 overall. The country is No. 2 in Citizenship and No. 1 in Best Countries for Green Living.
    But the statistics bureau attributed the overall rise in CPI chiefly to a base effect resulting from low prices a year prior.
  • 智慧城市政策支持 装饰物联网大有可为
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • ['t?]
    《量子破碎》
  • 'Blue Jasmine' belongs, chronologically, to Woody Allen's late period of self-renewal. Artistically, however, it's a comfortable fit with some of the brightest comedies-the brightest/bleakest/wriest comedies-he's ever done. The centerpiece is Cate Blanchett's astonishing performance as Blanche duBois re-imagined to be the half-mad ex-wife of Alec Baldwin's crypto-Bernie Madoff. Not all that far from the center, Sally Hawkins, Andrew Dice Clay, Bobby Cannavale and Louis C.K., among others, maneuver their way through mine fields of deceit and disappointment.
    岁末来临,二十多部影片轮番上映(hit cinema)。而今年的贺岁片大战随着《龙门飞甲》和《金陵十三钗》的上映而硝烟四起,一场票房PK战也随之拉开帷幕!December is a golde
  • “去年,有120万中国人来澳大利亚旅游,我们预计这将在中澳旅游年期间增长,并将继续增长。”
    《2013全球幸福指数报告》出台的背景是,现在的人们要求政府和政策制定者能够少关心经济的增长,而花更多的精力在提高国民的幸福感上。
  • ● “肉桂卷会在人类屁股内爆炸”
    Are you a Type D personality? Test reveals how the little-known character type is so good at bottling up emotions that even they don't realize they're lonely and anxious.
    The survey of 11,500 workers by Chinese employment agency Zhaopin found that 50.9 per cent did not get an annual bonus at the end of 2016. Another 9.6 per cent were told their bonus had been delayed until after the new year holiday.
  • Across all European schools, the average salary of alumni three years after graduation ranges from $143,000 for executive MBA graduates to $54,000 for MiM graduates. MBA graduates earned on average $123,000. Spanish and German MiM graduates enjoyed the highest salary three years after graduation, both $70,000 on average. French MBA graduates and Swiss EMBA graduates top their salary scale, with average salaries of $137,000 and $166,000 respectively.
    Over time, this ethnic blend has led to an uncommon harmony among the current squad, whose young players -- notably Eden Hazard and Romelu Lukaku of Chelsea, and Adnan Januzaj 贾努扎伊of Manchester United -- are the envy of many of their competitors.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 农业和建筑建材盈利改善 基金布局推升持股集中度 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

楼市健康发展须及时除“噪”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

门窗企业迎电商转线上 “大卖场”成未来趋势

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

2014年家居设计简约风盛行 低成本建材备受关注

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

重点钢企主营业务亏损了165亿 钢铁电商“野蛮”生长

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The performance was his worst so far this season, yet, frankly, it wasn't too dissimilar from those that preceded it. In his 20th NBA season, the 37-year-old Bryant has looked his age.
  • 中国国家统计局发布的10月份制造业采购经理指数(PMI)降至51.6,比路透(Reuters)调查的经济学家给出的预测中值52要低,离荣枯分界线50更近。
  • 全部冲破限价 南京将全面进入“现房销售”时代

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Tumor Biology, a journal published by Springer Nature, announced last week that it had retracted the papers after an investigation showed the peer review process had been compromised.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 1870年3月19号,轮滑登上杂志《科学美国人》。它的制作人是伊利诺伊州奥尔尼的托马斯·呂德斯,被称作"佩德速度",后来,轮滑的轮变得小了很多,直径约为36厘米(15英寸)。吕德斯身材高大魁梧,他说自己用轮滑一直滑2个小时也不觉得累,同时他也说每一个人都可以滑轮滑,不论他们是什么体型。另一种轮滑出现在1923年,它的轮子在脚的内侧,而非外侧。(除了轮子的尺寸不一样以外,两种轮滑最主要的差别在于:由战车溜冰公司制作的轮滑,小轮在大轮的后面,增强整个轮滑的稳定性。)
    But closing the deal on RCEP less than a year after Donald Trump pulled the US out of the TPP would be a big win for Beijing.
    可口可乐首席运营官詹姆斯?昆西(James Quincey)表示:“我们并未真的假设今年余下时期中国的形势会好转。”他表示,今年第二季度该公司在华果汁销售额降幅达到两位数,可口可乐饮料销售额降幅为个位数。
  • 彭博(Bloomberg)的调查分析此前预计1月份中国CPI应上升1.9%。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Company: (Wonderbag) Natural Balance
  • 陶瓷厂做工死亡 索赔律师费谁付?
  • John Williams's classic score still raises goosebumps over 40 years after this summer blockbuster hit theaters. Jaws preys on our primal fear of the unknown in deep waters, showing a small beach town ravaged by a series of attacks from a single killer shark. In recent years, environmentalists have stressed the generally nonthreatening nature of sharks, which kill an average of just eight swimmers each year.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 12月百城新房均价连跌8个月 九成城市跌回一年前
  • Household substance abuse
  • 吴长江德豪1.3亿股遭冻结
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

城市副中心常住人口不超130万

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • “以房养老”是本好经不要被“坏和尚”念歪了
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 细数中国陶瓷行业十八怪
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

这些模子能让普通水果长出有趣的形状。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The value of goods that crossed international borders last year fell 13.8 per cent in dollar terms — the first contraction since 2009 — according to the Netherlands Bureau of Economic Policy Analysis’s World Trade Monitor. Much of the slump was due to a slowdown in China and other emerging economies.
工业部和信息技术部的数据显示,上月新能源汽车的产量为1.61万台,比去年同期大幅上涨了144%。全电动乘用车的产量达到7952台,是去年同期的三倍。政府数据显示,一月份生产的新能源汽车,97%都有资格享受税收优惠政策。
All-cash buyers. Skittish lenders. Skyrocketing prices. Anemic listings. These realities haunt buyers, turning the house hunt into a demoralizing slog. Unfortunately, buyers will probably have to soldier through another year of a market that favors sellers.
在其他杯赛中,尽管没有做调查,但同样也呈现出类似趋势。
交通银行首席经济学家连平表示,不断上涨的生产者物价可能会在较长的时间内推高消费价格。
The programme is ranked second for career progress three years after graduation. Tiemba’s graduates number only about 250 so far, making them an elite group.— LaurentOrtmans
"In the aftermath of recessions, there's always a period of jobless recovery," says John Challenger, CEO of global outplacement firm Challenger Gray & Christmas. "We're certainly not optimistic about seeing much improvement in the unemployment rate in 2010."
Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Wuhan and Nanjing have been ranked as the top five cities for opportunity in China, according to a report jointly launched by PricewaterhouseCoopers and the China Development Research Foundation.
"Protections that promote equality and diversity should not be conditional on someone's sexual orientation," he wrote. "For too long, too many people have had to hide that part of their identity in the workplace."
关于英国即将离开欧盟最引人注目的事情是,我们居然仍对脱欧具体会带来什么后果知之甚少。全民公投可是一年多以前的事了。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

区域分割生财术 家居卖场为何成4A级景区?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Over the past three years, drawing conclusions about China's box office growth has been complicated by Beijing's decision to include new service fees in official revenue totals.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 斗转星移关我何事?我的癖好才最重要。
  • 三线城市成房价上涨主力 广东楼市库存持续消化
  • 亲爱的朋友,你们即将毕业,呈现在你面前的世界拥有美好的前景和潜力;这个世界并不仅仅以办公室走廊或华尔街的形式出现,而是令人激动不已的真实世界,充满许多未解之谜,以及让人陶醉的体验。我们当中许多人都忽略了这个简单的真理。
  • 北京大红门早市下月15日关停 已有超过7成商户办理解约手续
  • 该校学员们称赞这里的训练将他们推出了自己的“舒适区”,还有针对他们各自企业情况量身定制的一对一辅导课程。“对于什么是优秀的领导,这里打开了我们的视界,”一位学员说,“我们先了解自己,了解我们的动力所在以及为什么,这样才能管理别人。”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 湖南整治不动产登记窗口作风问题
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 2016年重庆市GDP增长了10.7%,达到了1.76万亿元人民币。贵州和西藏分别实现了10.5%和10%的GDP增长。
  • It is an acoustic guitar-led anthem and instant lighters-up classic, pivoting into punk-pop with Eagles of Death Metal on "Let 'Em Talk".

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

卫浴行业:新零售时代来临 开启品质时代

View All Footnotes